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CATHOLIC CHURCH (TRUE CHURCH)

TRUE CHURCH

 

         >        Jesus Christ founded the Catholic Church

         Christ’s church has many titles. It is sometimes called merely “The Church” or the “Catholic Church”- also known as “The Christian Church”, “The Roman Catholic Church”.

         As to St. Pacian(4th century), Christian is my name and catholic  is  my surname.

         >there is Only One True Church

                   REASONS:

  • Since God is all truthful, He could not establish different Churches teaching contradictory doctrines in His name, else He would be responsible for the errors in belief.
  • Christ said to St. Peter: “Upon this rock I will build  My Church” (Matt. 16:18) and St. Paul said: “One Lord,One Faith, One Baptism” (Eph. 4:5).

THE CHURCH

THE CHURCH

What is the Church?

The church is the community of the faithful who are united with Christ, the source of salvation.

          This implies that:

>The church is the society of men on earth who are united in the profession of one and the same Christian faith and the participation of the same sacraments, under the rule of the lawful pastors and especially of the Roman Pontiff, any high or chief priest. (St. Robert Belarmino)

>The society of the faithful is united in the profession of the same faith, in the participation of the sacrament and in government under its lawful pastors.

>The union of the faithful in these three points arises from the threefold power committed to His church by Christ in bestowing upon it the teaching office, the priestly office, and the pastoral office.

PURPOSE:

          Through Her (referring the church), God may be rightly worshipped and loved all over the world and that thereby all men be saved.        

          EXPANSION:

          Because God is the all perfect and Supreme Being, the primary purpose of the creations, of the angels, of man, of the Incarnation and Redemption, and of the Church is the salvation of all men. It is by our sanctification (2nd purpose) that we give glory to God (1st purpose).

The Church worships God mainly through her liturgy. Liturgy is the public worship of the Church, given to God by Jesus Christ, her head, and by all the faithful, her members. The essential acts of the liturgy are three: the prayers of the priesthood in the divine office, the mass and the Sacraments. The term “rite” is sometimes used to refer to the liturgy according to some definite custom and language.

  

                    

DENSITY DETERMINATION (PYCNOMETER METHOD)

INTRODUCTION:

A pycnometer is used for measuring the density of a solutions. The pycnometer (from the Greek puknos, meaning “density”, also called pyknometer or specific gravity bottle) If the flask is weighed empty, full of water, and full of a liquid whose specific gravity is desired, the specific gravity of the liquid can easily be calculate. The density, r, is elementary physical property of matter. For a homogeneous object it is defined as the ratio of its mass m to its volume V Numerically it represents the mass per unit volume of matter. As it follows from equation , the SI unit of density is kg/m3. However, g/cm3 is another unit commonly used in a laboratory. The volume of an object increases with increasing temperature, because of the matter’s volumetric thermal expansion. Therefore, according to equation [1], the density of an object depends on its temperature, with higher temperature resulting in lower density. Exception is water in temperature range 0-4 °C, for which the density increases with increasing temperature. The density of a gas further depends on the pressure as well. Nevertheless, this effect is negligible in a case of liquid and/or solid matter. There are several experimental methods used for density determination of liquids. We will learn how to use pycnometer in this experiment.

Glassware /Chemicals/Materials:

  • Unknown            Water                                    25-mL pycnometer           weighing balance              boiling beads
  • Blower                  Acetone                                tissue paper                        pipet                                      NaCl

Procedure:


  1. Obtain a pycnometer and glass stopper from the lab assistant.
  2. Carefully clean the glassware with soap and water and then rinse with a small amount of acetone.
  3. Weigh the dry flask and stopper on the analytical balance in the balance room.
  4. Determine the exact volume of your pycnometer by filling it fully with water, inserting  the stopper, and tapping the sides gently to remove the air bubbles.
  5. Dry the sides and weigh the full pycnometer on the analytical balance. Measure the temperature of the water.
  6.  Use the known density of water located below to determine the volume of water contained in the full pycnometer flask.
  7. Be certain to use the known density value at the correct temperature.
  8. Do the same for the procedure in the liquid unknown. Calculate the density of the unknowns.

t [°C]  rH2O [g/cm3]
15        0.99996
16        0.99994
17       0.99990
18        0.99985
19        0.99978
20       0.99820
21       0.99799
22      0.99777
23      0.99754
24     0.99730
25    0.99705

II.   Density Determination of Solutions

  1. Prepare solutions of NaCl in distilled water consisting of the following percentages by weight : 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. Prepare 25 mL of each solution. Make the weight determinations of solute and solvent to the nearest milligram.
  2. Using the method above, determine the density of each of the NaCl solution. Record the temperature of each solution while determining its density.
  3. Construct a graph of the density of the solutions versus the percentage of NaCl the solution contains. What sort of relationship exists between density and composition?
  4. Use a handbook of chemical data to determine the true density of each of the solutions prepared. Calculate the error in each of the densities determined.

NOTES:

Density determination by pycnometer is a very precise method. It uses a working liquid with well-known density, such as water. We will use distilled water, for which temperature dependent values of density rH2O are shown in Table 1. The pycnometer  is a glass flask with a close-fitting ground glass stopper with a capillary hole through it. This fine hole releases a spare liquid after closing a top-filled pycnometer and allows for obtaining a given volume of measured and/or working liquid with a high accuracy.

A material’s density is defined as its mass per unit volume. It is, essentially, a measuremement of how tightly matter is crammed together. The principle of density was discovered by the Greek scientist Archimedes. One of the most common uses of density is in how different materials interact when mixed together. The change in density can also be useful in analyzing some situations, such as whenever a chemical conversion is taking place and energy is being released.

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION:

Measuring the Density of Solution

A pycnometer is a vessel with a precisely known volume. When one thinks of density determinations, one usually thinks of a pycnometer. Although a pycnometer is used to determine density  or specific gravity, it measures volume ; a balance is used to determine mass . Manual pycnometer (glassware) typically are used to determine the density or specific gravity of liquids by filling the vessel, then weighing. Density is calculated by  and specific gravity by the same equation and dividing both sides by the density of water with reference to temperature.Essentially the same process can be used to determine the volume of an unknown, enclosed space. First the object containing the void is weighed empty. It is then filled with a liquid of known density and reweighed. The weight difference is the weight of the liquid and from these data, volume can be calculated byAs will be explained, this process is used to ‘calibrate’ sample cells used in mercury porosimetry.

  • A pycnometer can also be used for determining relative density (drel) of liquids using the weight of a known volume.
  • Main formulas to calculate densities are:
  • where d is the density [g/cm3], m is the mass (weight) [g], V is the volume [cm3], and d rel is the relative density of a substance or mixture.

Relative density is the ratio of the mass in air of a given volume of a material at a stated temperature to the mass in air of an equal volume of distilled water at the same temperature.

Density is an important property of matter, and may be used as a method for identification. In the experiment, you have determined the densities of regularly and irregularly shaped solids as well as of pure liquids and solutions. The density of a sample of matter represents the mass contained within a unit volume of space in the sample. For most samples, a unit volume means 1./0mL.. The units of density, therefore are quoted in terms of g/mL or g/cm3 for most solid and liquid samples of matter
Density is usually determined and reported at 20C because the volume of a sample and hence the density, will often vary with temperature. This is especially true for gases, with smaller(but still often significant) changes for liquids and solids. References (such as the various chemical handbooks) always specify the temperature at which a density was measured. Density is often used as a point of identification in the determination of an unknown substance.  The density of the unknown might be used to distinguish the unknown from other suspects. It is very unlikely that 2 substances would have the same density. Density can also be used to determine the concentration of solutions in certain instances. When a solute is dissolved in a solvent, the density of the solution will be different fro, that of the pure solvent in itself. Handbook list detailed information about the densities of solutions as a function of their composition typically in terms of percent solute in the solution. If the sample contains only a single solute, the density of the solution could be measured experimentally and then the handbook could be consulted to determine what concentration of the solute give rise to the measured solution density.Several techniques are used for the determination of density. The method used will depend on the type of the sample and on the level of precision desired for the measurement. In general, a density determination will involve the determination of the mass of the sample with a balance, but the method used to determine the volume of the sample will differ from situation to situation. Several methods of volume determination are also explored. For solid sample, diff methods may be needed for the determination of the volume, depending on whether or not the solid is regularly shaped. If a solid has a regular shape, the volume of the solid may be determined by geometry. If the solid does not have a regular shape, it is possible to determine it by Archimedes principle. For liquids, very precise values of density may be determined by pipeting an exact volume of liquid into a sealable weighing bottle and then determining the mass of liquid that was pipeted.

REFERENCES:

N. Kučerka, PhD.DETERMINATION BY PYCNOMETER :Available:http://www.fpharm.uniba.sk/fileadmin/user_upload/english/Fyzika/Density_determination_by_pycnometer.pdf

 Jones,Andrew Zimmerman.  What is Density? Available:http://physics.about.com/od/fluidmechanics/f/density.htm

AZo Journal of Materials Online. Volume and Density Definitions and Determination Methods.Available. http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=3214


DETERMINATION OF MOLAR MASS (DUMAS METHOD)

INTRODUCTION:

One of the properties that helps characterize a substance is its molar mass. If the substance in question is a volatile liquid, a common method to determine its molar mass is to vaporize it and apply the ideal gas law, PV = nRT to the data collected. Because the liquid is volatile, it can easily be converted to a vapor. Volatile substances are usually composed of nonpolar molecules. As a result the molecules have primarily London dispersion forces and very little thermal energy is required to overcome these attractive forces since the molecules are relatively small. Therefore, the liquid vaporizes easily and quickly at temperatures less than 100°C. While the substance is in the vapor phase, you can measure its volume, pressure, and temperature. You can then use the ideal gas law to calculate the number of moles of the substance. Finally, you can use the number of moles of the gas to calculate molar mass.

In the early 19th century, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, a distinguished French chemist, created a relatively simple method for determination of the molecular weight of a substance.With this method, molecular weight is calculated by measuring the mass of a known volume of a vaporized liquid. Because the concept of the mole had not been developed in Dumas’ era, he computed relative molecular weights based on relative gas densities. Though Dumas got mixed results based on erroneous assumptions concerning elements in the gas phase, he is credited with establishing values for the molecular weights of thirty elements.One of the early methods for the determination of the molar mass of volatile substances was through the measurement of the density of the vapor of the substance.  The method is reliable and convenient and is still employed in some situations. In this approach, the sample is added to a small flask, the flask is heated and as the sample evaporates, the air is swept out of the container. Then flask is cooled again, and the mass of liquid which condenses must be equal to the mass of vapor that filled theflask in the previous step.  A little skill is required to judge the point at which the flask is just filled with sample vapor.

OBJECTIVES
In this experiment, you will

  •  Evaporate a sample of a liquid substance and measure certain physical properties of the substance as it condenses.
  •  Determine the molar mass of an unknown liquid and the hexane.
  • Determine the percentage error , standard deviation and coefficient variance of the unknown liquid and the hexane with respect to its theoretical molar mass value.

Glassware /Chemicals/Materials:

  • Iron ring                                               Iron Clamp                                          wire gauze                           boiling chips
  •   Iron stand                                            Bunsen burner                                   600-mL beaker                   barometer
  • Water bath                                           thermometer                                       50-mL graduated cylinder
  • 125mL Erlenmeyer flask                 rubber band

Procedure:

DUMAS SET-UP


  1. Fill the 600 mL beaker two thirds full with deionized water. Place on the iron ring, and heat with a bunsen burner until the water boils. Add boiling chips/beads onto the water bath.
  2. While the water is beginning to boil, make an aluminum foil cap for the flask which will not go lower than 6 to 8 mm below the top (minimizes the chances of water being caught in the cap and affecting the weight).
  3. Weigh a dry Erlenmeyer flask and cap on the analytical balance. Place about 10 mL of hexane into theflorenceflask, crimp down the cap tightly, and punch a small hole into the aluminum foil cap.
  4. Boil gently. Add deionized water periodically to maintain a high water level. Measure the boiling point of the water.
  5. Heat the flask until you no longer see a Schlieren pattern emerging form the hole in the foil. Schlieren patterns are like the watery lines seen rising from a heated surface. Remove the flask when the pattern disappears. The flask should contain no liquid at this point.
  6. Cool the flask to room temperature and the vapors will condense into a small amount of liquid.
  7. Dry the exterior of the flask with a paper towel and weigh the flask and contents to the nearest milligram.
  8. Repeat the vaporization and condensation steps twice more so that you have three values for the mass of the condensed vapor.
  9. Obtain the atmospheric pressure from the barometer in the laboratory.
  10. Obtain an unknown sample from your instructor.
  11. Once you have completed all measurements for your reference and unknown samples. Obtain the volume of the flask used and calculate for the molar mass of hexane and the unknown. Calculate also for the standard deviation, relative standard deviation and the percentage error from the calculated Molar mass.

NOTE: 1

Many of the liquids will dissolve plastics and finishes. Spills should be immediately
soaked up with paper towels and the towels placed in the fume hood for evaporation of
the liquid.The measurement of the density of the vapor of the substance was one of the early methods for the determination of the molar mass of volatile substances. The method is convenient and reliable and is still employed in some situations. In this approach, the sample is added to a small flask, the flask is heated and as the sample evaporates, the air is swept out of the container. Then flask is cooled again, and the mass of liquid which condenses must be equal to the mass of vapor that filled the flask in the previous step. A little skill is required to judge the point at which the flask is just filled with sample vapor.

NOTE:2

  1. It is extremely important that no water get inside the flask.
  2. The vapor is easiest to see if you are at eye level with the top of the flask and look across the top of the flask.
  3. The vapor looks like a colorless swirling cloud or jet. (It also helps to look toward a light source.)
  4. It can be difficult to observe the unknown vaporizing and streaming due to bubbling on the flask and water vapor generated by the bath.
  5. If seeing the vaporization is too difficult, simply allow the liquid to vaporize for approximately one minute after the bath has reached a steady boil.
  6. Vaporization is considered complete when no more liquid in the flask is found or no more visible vapor is escaping through the pinhole
  7. It is extremely important that the exterior of the flask should be dry before weighing.

DISCUSSION and ANALYSIS

The combined gas law is given by the equipment

                                                p V = n R T

  •  where p is the pressure of the gas in atmospheres, V is the volume of the gas sample in liters, n is the number of moles of gas present, T is the temperature of the sample in Kelvin, and R is the empirically determined quantity known as the gas law constant which has the value of 0.0821 L atm mole-1 deg-1.
  • This relationship describes very well the behavior of gases at ordinary pressures and moderate temperatures
  • by simple rearrangement of the above equation:

 M = (wt/ V) (R T / p) vapor density form of the combined gas law. Gases by nature are difficult to handle and very impractical to use at the General Chemistry level.Thus, we selected a compound which is a gas at the temperature and pressure mentioned above while a liquid at room temperature. Many organic compounds fit this criterion; the one we used was hexane.Since hexane vapor is heavier than air, it should remain in the flask. Once the flask is sealed, removed from the boiling water, and allowed to cool, the hexane vapor will condense to a liquid and the flask and liquid can be weighed. At this point, we have the mass, temperature, volume, and pressure. The molecular weight of the hexane can now be determined.
Unknown: Isopropyl Alcohol or 2-propanol (60.1 g/mole, P2-propanol = 41 torr, bp = 82.4 oC) is a flammable liquid, miscible with water and common organic solvents. It is a solvent in many quick drying commercial preparations (inks, shellacs, oils, etc.) and is used as a topical antiseptic as a 70% solution (rubbing alcohol).

KEY NOTES:

Acetone (b.p. 56.2°C, molar mass = 58.08 g/mol)
• Cyclohexane (b.p. 80.7°C, molar mass = 84.16 g/mol)
• Ethyl acetate (b.p. 77.2°C, molar mass = 88.105 g/mol)
• Ethyl alcohol, anhydrous (b.p. 78.4°C, molar mass = 46.07 g/mol)
• Methyl alcohol, anhydrous (b.p. 64.7°C, molar mass = 32.05 g/mol)
• Isopropyl alcohol, anhydrous (b.p. 82.4°C, molar mass = 60.10 g/mol)
• n-Propyl alcohol (b.p. 97.2°C, molar mass = 60.10 g/mol)

WHAT is the difference between a vapor and a gas?
A gas is a gas at room temperature and pressure while a vapor describes the “gas” of a substance that is a
liquid or solid at room temperature.

How would your calculated molar mass have been affected if you had used twice the initial amount of
the unknown compound?
The calculated molar mass of the liquid would be the same. It would simply take longer for the sample
to vaporize completely.

Data Treatment
Determine the following:
1. The apparent mass of vapor occupying the flask at the boiling water temperature.
2. The volume of the flask, based on water density.
3. The formula weight of the organic liquid.
4. The moles of air displaced by the volatile liquid vapor (at room temperature).
5. The mass of air displaced by the volatile liquid vapor.
6. The true mass of vapor that occupied the flask at the boiling water temperature.
7. The corrected formula weight of the vapor and relative error.
8. Using the elemental analysis for your compound, determine the correct molecular
formula.

REFERENCES:

http://www2.vernier.com/sample_labs/CHEM-A-03-COMP-molar_mass.pdf

http://01.edu-cdn.com/study-help/article/experiment-3-molar-mass-vapor/

http://apchemistrynmsi.wikispaces.com/file/view/03+Determination+of+Molar+Mass+by+Vapor+Density.pdf

http://01.edu-cdn.com/study-help/article/experiment-3-molar-mass-vapor/

http://apchemistrynmsi.wikispaces.com/file/view/03+Determination+of+Molar+Mass+by+Vapor+Density.pdf

DATA:

Unknown number
Mass of flask, stopper, pipet and condensed vapor
Mass of flask, stopper and pipet
Temp. of boiling water
Barometric pressure
Mass of condensed vapor
Volume of flask
Volume of pipet
Total volume of vapor
Average total volume of vapor
Temperature of vapor
Molecular weight of unknown
Average molecular weight of unknown

JESUS LOVES US

Nangyaring sumulat ako upang maipabatid ko sa iyo kung gaano kita kamahal at kung gaano ang pagmamalasakit ko sa iyo. Nakita kita kahapon, habang ikaw ay naglalakad, kasama ng iyong mga kaibigan.Naghintay ako sa tabernakulo ng inyong kapilya, sa buong maghapon, sa pag-aakalng nais mo rin makipag-usap sa akin. Nang magtakipsilim na ay binigyan kita ng ginintuang paglubog ng araw at nang malamig na simoy ng hangin, para sa iyong pamamahinga. at ako ay naghintay…subalit hinda ka dumating……..inindyan mo ako!Lubos akong nasaktan at nagdamdam, gayon pa man ay mahal pa rin kita sapagkat itinuturing kitang kaibigan.
Kagabi ay pinagmamasdan kita sa iyong pagtulog. Sa pagnanais  kong maidampi kahit amn lamang ang aking mga palad sa iyong noo, sinabugan kita ng malamlam na liwanag ng buwan sa iyong mukha…..muli akong naghintay!Halos madiliin ko ang umaga upang tayo’y makapg-usap.sabik na sabik akong makausap kita.Marami pa naman akong regalo sa iyo.subalit napahimbing ka ng tulog kagabi…..tanghali ka na ng amgising…..nagmamamdali kang uminom ng kape at nagpunta ka na sa iyong trabaho/paaralan.Ang aking mga luha’y nalunod na lamang sa mga patak ng ulan.
Ngayon,ikaw ay parang malungkot at nag-iisa.Ito’y nakapagdurugo ng aking puso sapagkat lubusan kitang nauunawaan.Ganyan naman talaga ang mga kaibigan ko…….lagi akong sinasasaktan!Gayon pa man ay mahal pa rin kita…..mahal ko kayong lahat…..kung pakikinggan mo lang sana ako!Talagang mahal na mahal kita!Ito’y hinahangad maipaunawa ko sa iyo sa bughaw na papawirin at sa luntiang damuhan…….ibininubulong sa mga dahon ng mga punongkahoy…….ibinubuntong hininga sa makulay na mga bulaklak……ipinagsisigawan sa mga batis  at sa mga huni ng mga ibon…….dinaramdam kita sa init ng sikat ng araw…..at pinababango sa singaw ng kalikasan.Ang pag-ibig ko sa iyo ay mas malalim pa  kays karagatn at mas malaki pa  kaysa alinmang pangangailangan at suliranin ng iyong puso.Kung alam mo lang  sana  kung gaano ang pagnanais ko na ika’y tulungan!
Nais ko lang makilala mo ang aking Ama……Nais ka rin niyang tulungan.ganyan naman ang aking Ama…..sadyang matulungin,lubos na maunawain at mapagmahal.Tumawag ka lang at ako’y iyong kausapin.Sabihin mo sa akin ang anumang nais  mong sabihin.Please naman….huwag mo akong kalimutan.Napakarami pa nang nais kong ibahagi sa iyo.Subalit hindi kita masyadong gagambalain pa.Malaya ka naman na tawagin ako kahit na anong oras……bahala kana.Basta’t tanadaan mo na ako ay laging naghihintay sa iyo sapagkat………………..

MAHAL KITA!!!!!!!!!!!!

Jesus,Anak ng Diyos

ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF PROTEINS

BS CHEMISTRY III                                                                                  Date Submitted: August 1,2010

ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF PROTEINS

Experiment # 4

INTRODUCTION:

In a protein isolation one is endeavoring to purify a particular protein, from some biological (cellular) material, or from a bioproduct, since proteins are only synthesized by living systems. The objective is to separate the protein of interest from all non-protein material and all other proteins which occur in the same material. Removing the other proteins is the difficult part because, as noted above, all proteins are similar in their gross properties. In an ideal case, where one was able to remove the contaminating proteins, without any loss of the protein of interest, clearly the total amount of protein would decrease while the activity (which defines the particular protein of interest) would remain the same.

OBJECTIVES:

To be able to discuss the different test in proteins.

To discuss the solubility of proteins.

To discuss the isolation of proteins.

MATERIALS:

CHEMICALS: milk, water, Acetic acid, 0.01N NaOH, 1N HOAc, fresh eggs, 0.9% NaCl, buffered sat. Ammonium sulfate, conc. HNO3, dilute HCl, dilute NaOH, 0.1% CuSO4, 95% alcohol

APPARATUS: test tubes, test tube rack, beakers, hot plate, stirring rod, thermometer, graduated cylinder, dropper, cheesecloth, filter paper, wash bottle, mortar and pestle, masking tape, marker, centrifuge

PROCEDURE:

A. ISOLATION OF CASEIN FROM MILK

Skim milk was diluted with a ratio of 1:3 by volume with the used of tap water. The prepared milk was heated to 40°C; instead of 10% HCl, acetic acid was added drop wise and was stirred thoroughly until the flocculent precipitate was formed. The mixture was then stirred for five minutes. The curd was allowed to settle and the whey was decanted. The curd was washed in distilled water and was filtered. The curd was dried between the filter paper and was washed with 95% alcohol and was stirred for three-minutes. The precipitate was then filtered and pressed. Likewise , it was extracted with enough ether. The precipitate was then filtered and pressed. The papers were opened and allowed the ether to evaporate spontaneously. The precipitate was ground to a powder. 1% of casein solution was then prepared in 0.01N NaOH.

B. ISOLATION OF EGG ALBUMIN

The yolks from two eggs was separated and the egg whites was got that included the chalazas. The volume of egg white was measured , stirred and 0.1mL of 1N HOAc was added and stirred. The mixture was filtered through cheesecloth and was stirred with a glass rod . An equal volume of the buffered saturated ammonium sulfate was added. After an half hour, the precipitate of ovoglobulin was centrifuged-off . Buffered ammonium sulfate was added to the clear yellow centrifugate and was stirred. The mixture was then refriferated for 2-days. Centrifuged and was discarded. 1% solution of albumin was then prepared in 0.9% NaCl.

TEST FOR ELEMENTARY COMPOSIITON OF PROTEINS

Carbon and nitrogen: A little casein was put in a test tube and was heated for two minutes.

Nitrogen: (not performed due to lack of chemicals)

SOLUBILITY

The solubility of casein and albumin was tested in water, dilute HCl, dilute NaOH and 10% NaCl.

PROTEIN TESTS

Millon’s test: (not performed due to lack of chemicals)

Xanthoproteic test: One milliliter of protein sample was put in the test tube ,1mL of concentrated HNO3 was added, was heated and cooled.

Biuret test: One milliliter of protein sample was put in the test tube, 1mL of 10% NaOH and 0.1% CuSO4 dropped by dropped and was mixed.

RESULTS:

TEST\\SAMPLE Casein Albumin
Elementary composition of proteins: Carbon and nitrogen Slightly yellow Slightly yellow
Nitrogen Not performed Not performed
Solubility: HCl Insoluble Insoluble
Water Insoluble Insoluble
Dilute NaOH Insoluble Insoluble
10% NaCl Soluble Soluble
Protein test: Millon’s test Not performed Not performed
Xanthoproteic test Slightly yellow Yellow
Biuret test Purple Blue violet

DISCUSSION:

Elementary composition of proteins:

Upon heating, it was observed in both sample that the color produce was slightly yellow. It experiences coagulation upon heating or termed as protein denaturation. But it should only be albumin that coagulates upon heating and casein is coagulated when there is an addition of acetic acid or nitric acid. In coagulation process, it may lose their solubility upon heating and it may also lose their electric charge upon addition of acid in the case for casein.

Soda lime acts as the strong base to start the acid base reaction due to dry heating the mixture. Soda lime absorbs carbon dioxide hence used in many industries for manufacture of medicines , breathing masks, water purification tablets, It is not considered a confirmatory test for nitrogen as the nitrogen does not react with it. It is find out if the organic compound is basic or acid and if the litmus test done along with it results in blue coloration the compound is base and if it turn red then compound is acid.

NH3(g) + H2O(aq) —> NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)

Solubility:

Solubility is one property that can be used to classify the proteins that result from the various levels of structure. For example, fibrous proteins are not soluble in water. Many familiar components of tissues are composed of fibrous proteins, including keratin (the protein present in hair), collagen (a structural protein found in tendons and cartilage), myosin (a protein found in most muscle tissue), and fibrin (the protein that allows blood to clot and form scabs). Conversely, globular proteins are soluble in water. For example, albumins are water-soluble proteins that provide a familiar example of what happens when a protein loses its secondary and tertiary structure, a process called denaturation.

The isoelectric point of casein is 4.6. Since milk’s pH is 6.6, casein has a negative charge in milk. The purified protein is water insoluble. While it is also insoluble in neutral salt solutions, it is readily dispersible in dilute alkalis and in salt solutions such as sodium oxalate and sodium acetate.

Albumin is water soluble, which is moderately soluble in concentrated salt solutions.

Protein test:

Biochemists have developed a number of color tests for proteins and amino acids. Some of the color tests involve the peptide backbone chain and are general for proteins; others are specific for particular amino acids or amino acid residues in a peptide or protein.

The color produced in Millon’s test is given by derivatives of benzene in which a hydrogen in the ring has been replaced by a hydroxyl group. The reaction serves as a test for the presence of tyrosine. The phenolic group, ż \OH, of tyrosine reacts with the Millon’s reagent (a mixture of Hg+: and Hg2+2 and HN03) to give a brick-red solution or a red precipitate. In any case the appearance of a red color is a positive test for tyrosine. Tryptophan does not give a brick red color, but instead produces a tan colored precipitate. This behavior is very characteristic for tryptophan in this test and may be used to identify tryptophan.

Xanthoproteic test is chemical test for specific functional groups in amino acid side chains that gives a color with only two of the twenty amino acids, tyrosine and tryptophan. Depending which is present, formation of a yellow or orange color is a positive test. Concentrated nitric acid reacts with the aromatic rings in tyrosine and tryptophan to yield yellow colored compounds. The aromatic ring of phenylalanine does not react with nitric acid under the conditions of the test. Proteins that contain significant levels of tyrosine or tryptophan will also produce a yellow color in this test. The intensity of the yellow color, the production of other colors when base (NaOH) is added, and other factors should be noted to assist in distinguishing between tyrosine and tryptophan or in distinguishing between two different proteins that may contain differing amounts of tyrosine and tryptophan.Since the color that was observed was yellow, then there is a presence of tyrosine, thus if it was orange then there is a  presence  of tryptophan.

The biuret test is used to detect the presence of proteins and peptides by treating them with an alkaline solution of dilute copper sulfate. A positive test is indicated by the formation of a pink-violet to purple-violet color. At least two peptide bonds (a tri-peptide) must be present for a positive test. Biuret test  this is a general test for proteins, not amino acids, and that a similar color is formed with all proteins.

The water forms a light blue solution; the amino acids, like the albumin a darker blue; and both proteins, like casein a purple solution.

CONCLUSION:

Therefore, Millon’s test is used to detect the presence of tyrosine in a sample, Biuret test is used to detect the proteins and peptides and Xanthoproteic test is used to detect the presence of tyrosine and tryptophan. The solubility of a certain protein is dependent on its isoelectric properties, it could be used to classify a certain protein is it globular or fibrous. The isolation and purification of proteins is used to check for signs of diseases.

PREPARATION AND STANDARDIZATION OF HCl AND NaOH SOLUTION

BS Chemistry III                                                                      Date Submitted:August 18,2010

PREPARATION AND STANDARDIZATION OF HCl AND NaOH SOLUTION

Experiment # 4

Introduction and Objectives:

Titration is a convenient quantitative method for accurately determining unknown concentrations of solutions. A necessary requirement for its use is that a standard solution (a solution of known concentration) reacts chemically with the solution whose concentration is being determined. The standard solution is added to a solution of unknown concentration until all of the unknown solution has reacted.

From the known quantity and molarity (or normality) of the standard solution and the measured volume of unknown solution used, the unknown concentration can be calculated. For example, standard base solution (NaOH) is added from a burette to an accurately known volume of the acid solution (HCl).

HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) ————> H2O(l) + NaCl(aq) (1)

This reaction (neutralization) can be written as a NET IONIC equation as follows:

H+(aq) + OH-(aq) ———-> H2O(l) (2)

When sufficient NaOH has been added to react with all of the acid, the titration is complete – the equivalence point has been reached. Most acid-base solutions are colorless and determining when one reactant has been totally consumed is difficult by simple observations. To allow us to visually determine this point, we use compounds called acid-base indicators to tell us when a reaction is complete. Dyes

(usually weak organic acids) whose colors depend upon pH are often used to signal the completion of acid-base reactions. Indicators must be carefully chosen based on the pH of the equivalence point of the titration. In this experiment, a strong base (NaOH) is being added to a strong acid (HCl). An indicator that changes color when the pH becomes greater than 7 (more base is added than necessary) is used. Titrations involving a strong acid and a strong base commonly employ phenolphthalein as an indicator. Phenolphthalein changes from colorless to red at a pH of » 8-10.

At the point when the indicator changes color (also called the endpoint) and from the net ionic equation given above, we can see that the moles of H+ equal the moles of OH-. From the molecular equation (Eq 1), we also see that the number of moles of HCl equals the number of moles of NaOH at the endpoint.

Preparation of a standard NaOH solution is not a simple task. Solid NaOH is hygroscopic – it readily absorbs water from the atmosphere. Thus, solutions of exact NaOH concentrations cannot be prepared by weighing out the calculated amount of NaOH and dissolving it in a given quantity of water. To prepare standard NaOH solutions directly, anhydrous NaOH must be weighed in a water-free environment (under normal conditions, you can observe the mass of NaOH increase as you weigh it on an analytical balance). Another problem in the preparation of standard NaOH solutions is the need to remove dissolved CO2 from the water used. NaOH reacts with CO2 to produce Na2CO3.

2NaOH(aq) + CO2(aq) ———> Na2CO3(aq) + H2O(l)

When solutions of NaOH containing carbonates are added to acid, both the OH- and the CO2- 3 react with the acid. Unless CO2 is removed from the NaOH solution, acid-base titrations will be in error. To avoid a carbonate titration error, NaOH solutions are prepared from CO2-free deionized water and protected from atmospheric CO2. A method less difficult than obtaining water-free NaOH and conditions and CO2-free water is to prepare NaOH solutions and then determine the precise concentration by reacting the solution with a primary standard acid, potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP). KHP is a non-hygroscopic (non water absorbing) compound obtained in high purity. It reacts with NaOH as indicated below:

The volume of NaOH solution required to react with a known weight of KHP is determined by titration. Since 1 mole of NaOH reacts with 1 mole of KHP, the concentration of NaOH can be calculated.

Mass of KHP

MW of KHP = moles of KHP

Moles of KHP = moles of NaOH (1:1 stoichiometry)

Moles of NaOH

Volume of NaOH in L = Molarity of NaOH (moles / L)

The volume of NaOH in the above equation is the amount of NaOH required to reach the endpoint when titrating the KHP of known mass. Thus, in this experiment, we will not prepare a standard NaOH solution directly. We will prepare a NaOH solution and standardize it with KHP concentrations.

In this experiment, one will be able to acquire skills in quantitative analysis and acquaint with the actual preparation and standardization of solutions. The concentrations also of the solutions will be determined.

Materials:

The chemicals that were used in this experiment were phenolphthalein indicator, water, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide and potassium acid phthalate.

The apparatuses that were used in this experiment were burette, beaker, pipette, graduated cylinder, analytical balance, reagent bottle, dropper, Erlenmeyer flask, desiccators, stirring rod, and volumetric flask.

Procedure:

Preparation of 0.1M NaOH solution

The weight of NaOH pellets that was needed to prepare 200ml of 0.1M NaOH was calculated. The calculated amount was weighed-out. The pellets were dissolved and the solution was transferred in a 200mL volumetric flask. It was diluted to mark and was transferred to a cleaned and washed reagent bottle.

Preparation of 0.1M HCl solution

The volume of a concentrated HCl needed to prepare 100mL of 0.1M HCl was calculated and the amount was obtained with the used of pipette. The solution was transferred into a volumetric flask and was diluted to mark and was transferred to a cleaned and washed reagent bottle.

Standardization of NaOH

An analytical grade potassium acid phthalate was dried in an oven at 105°C for an hour and cooled for 30minutes. The amount of KHP needed to neutralize 25ml of 0.1M NaOH was calculated. The calculated was weighed-out and was dissolved and was stirred. Three drops of phenolphthalein was added to the KHP solution. The titration then was started.

Standardization of the HCl solution

Twenty-five mL of the prepared HCl was got and placed in an Erlenmeyer flask. Three drops of phenolphthalein was added to the HCl solution. The titration then was started.

Results:

Table 1: Standardization of NaOH

Trial# NaOH(M) Ave. M(NaOH %Error s S C.V
1 0.09616 0.09399 6.010 4.618×10 2.666×10 0.2666
2 0.8869
3 0.09713

Table 2: Standardization of HCl

Trial# NaOH(M) Ave. M(NaOH %Error s S C.V
1 0.08380 0.08384 16.16 4.000×10 2.309×20 2.309×10
2 0.08388
3 0.08384

Discussions:

Titration is the procedure used to determine the concentration of some substance by the controlled addition of a solution into a reaction vessel (flask) from a burette. By using titration, the volume of the solution delivered from the burette may be determined very precisely. An indicator is a substance used to signal when a titration reaches the point at which the reactants are stoichiometrically equal as defined by the balance reaction equation and in this experiment, phenolphthalein indicator was used. In the acid-base titration between sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid the reaction is,

NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) —> H2O (l) + NaCl (aq)

End point is the point at which the indicator changes color. Our indicator, phenolphthalein changes from colorless to pink at the end point. The indicator should tell when the number of moles of NaOH and HCl are exactly equal, matching the 1:1 ratio in the equation.

The standard solution (NaOH and HCl) is a solution for which the concentration (molarity) is accurately known.

The concentration of NaOH based on the result is 0.09399M and that the concentration of HCl is 0.08384M, wherein it both solutions have less than the theoretical concentration. The obtained values of concentrations are less than the theoretical because of the instrumental error (analytical balance) and of personal error (judgment of the color and improper swirling of Erlenmeyer flask.

Conclusion:

Therefore, in order to quantitatively measure the amount of an acid or a base we must start by accurately establishing the concentration of our “standard solutions”. Titrations permit the concentrations of unknown acids/bases to be determined with a high degree of accuracy. In order to analyze unknown acids/bases, we must have a “standard” solution to react with the unknowns. A standard solution is one in which the concentration is known accurately.

The Feasibility of Producing Vinegar Out of Annona muricata (Guyabano) Fruit


ABSTRACT
Making vinegar is so easy it can be done by accident. We could even say that most of it is made without our cooperation or awareness. Making good vinegar, consistantly, is another story. That requires a little effort. But the effort pays well.
The materials were prepared and the fruit that was used was selected. The guyabano fruit that was used was ripe. The fruit was then peeled and the seeds were got and was set aside. The fruit was weighed . The fruit was extracted . The juice was added with water and sugar.It was then stirred. The mixture was then measured. It was subjected to heat and after pasteurization the mixture was allowed to cool down. After it was cooled, the mixture was put in a bottle and yeast was added but was not stirred. The airlock was then put and the fermentationn process took place.It was then fermented and observation was been done.
The must was decantated slowly and then subjected to heat and albumin was added.After pasteurization, the must was cooled and when it was cooled it put in the wine bottle for aging or oaking.After that the acetic acid was computed through testing it and the vinegar quality was tested through its taste, smell or odor and color
.
The scope and limitation of this study is on the analysis of Guyabanofruit as vinegar and to test or check its smell,taste and the presence of acetic acid in Guyabano vinegar.
The researcher therefore conclude that vinegar can be produced by Guyabano fruit.The researcher would like to recommend the product producedn of the Guyabano fruit.The researcher also recommend this study to be improve.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page………………………………………………………………………………………..i
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………..ii
Table of contents……………………………………………………………………………….iii
Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………………iv
Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………..1
Review of related Literature………………………………………………………………….2
Methodology…………………………………………………………………………………….3
Results and Discussions………………………………………………………………………4
Conclusion and Reccomendation…………………………………………………………….5
Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………………….6

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researcher would like to thank Mr. and Mrs. Fernandez for their moral and financial support whih inspires the researcher to finished this study. The reseacher would like also to thank Jenny Jerusalem, Jolly-Ann Cardoza, Dainty Damsel Pasal and Juvy Daganato who help the reseacher to continue and finished this study. To Ms. Balve Granido who also help the researcher to pursue this study. And most especially to our Almighty God who enlighten the mind of the researcher to work with this study and the one who gives the idea and strength.

CHAPTER I.INTRODUCTION


BACKGROUND OF THE
STUDY
The researcher chose this study Guyabano fruit vinegar because it has a unique characteristic that others species don’t have.It is one of the sweetest fruit that most people love to eat.It is easy to find because it is abundant to our country.And it has many uses such as threat for sore eyes,mosquito repellant and threat for malaria and dysentery diseases.It is a good source of vitamin B1,B2 and trace of vitamin C.The researcher wants to find other uses of Guyabanofruit and to produce a new product out of this fruit.The researcher wants to make vinegar out of Guyabano fruit to know its potential as a good source of vinegar.And to have another source of vinegar aside from coconut.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Is there a possibility to produce vinegar out of Guyabano fruit?

HYPOTHESIS
There is a possibility to produce vinegar out of Guyabano fruit.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance if this study is to have a good source of vinegar out of Guyabano fruit and to have another source of vinegar aside from coconut.And to have a good quality compared to other sources of vinegar,to have a good additives in preserving food.In fact,it is easy to store this product and safe to use.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The scope and limitation of this study is on the analysis ofGuyabanofruit as vinegar and to test or check its smell,taste and the presence of acetic acid in Guyabano vinegar.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
  • acetic acid-present in a dilute form in vinegar.
  • Ethyl alcohol – it is an organic compound representing the second member of the homologous series of the general formula.Also called ethanol,grain alcohol
  • FERMENTATION – it is the gradual decomposition of organic compounds induced by the action of the living organisms,by enzymes,or by chemical agents;specifically, the conversion of glucose into ethyl alcohol through the action of enzymes.
  • Guyabano fruit- upright small evergreen tree; white flesh with seeds on it.
  • vinegar- an immature acetic acid;an acid liquid obtained by the acetous fermentation of alcoholic liqiuds such as cider,wine,beer,etc.,and used as a condiment and preservative.
Chapter II
Review of Related Literature


Guyabano belongs to the family of Annonaceae, (A. muricata L.). The heart shaped oblong guyabano fruit has a dark green, leathery and spike-like skin that measures from 8 to 12 inches long and can weigh up to 2.5 kilos. The creamy and delectable flesh contains from 60 to 100 black-brown seeds that are indigestible and non-ediblThe guyabano tree is relatively small. It usually grows from 8 to less than 20 feet high and is sensitive to very cold temperatures. The guyabano tree requires a lot of water, warmth and humidity and is usually grown in the tropics. It is cultivated commercially in Central & South America, West Africa, Asia and South Florida in a limited extent. Guyabano has been used as folkloric herbal medicine in many regions thought the world. It is considered to be antispasmodic, sudorific and emetic. A decoction (boiling in water) of guyabano leaves is used to kill bedbugs and head lice.Aside from being eaten raw, the guyabano fruit is processed into candies, tarts, shakes, ice-cream, sherbets and other beverages such as wine, etc.The flesh of the fruit consist of a white edible pulp that is high in carbohydrates and considerable amounts of Vitamin C, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Potassium and dietary fiber. Guyabano is low in cholesterol, saturated fat and sodium. No only is guyabano a good health food, it also taste delicious. It is said that this kind of fruit is so nutricious and can be made into vinegar.

Vinegar is a liquid produced from the fermentation of ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient, acetic acid. The acetic acid concentration ranges typically from 4 to 8 percent by volume for table vinegar[1] (typically 5%) and higher concentrations for pickling (up to 18%) although in some countries the minimum strength may be less. Natural vinegars also contain smaller amounts of tartaric acid, citric acid, and other acids. It has been used since ancient times, and is an important element in Western and European, Asian, and other traditional cuisines of the world.The word “vinegar” derives from the Old French vin aigre, meaning “sour wine.” Louis Pasteur showed in 1864 that vinegar results from a natural fermentation process.
The pH of vinegar is typically in the range of 2 to 3.5, depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Commercially available vinegar usually has a pH of about 2.4Vinegar has a density of approximately 0.96 g/mL. The density level depends on the acidity of the vinegar.
Vinegar is made from the oxidation of ethanol in wine, cider, beer, fermented fruit juice, or nearly any other liquid containing alcohol. Commercial vinegar is produced either by fast or slow fermentation processes. Slow methods are generally used with traditional vinegars and fermentation proceeds slowly over the course of weeks or months. The longer fermentation period allows for the accumulation of a nontoxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria and soluble cellulose, known as the mother of vinegar. Fast methods add mother of vinegar (i.e. bacterial culture) to the source liquid and then add air using a venturi pump system or a turbine
Fruit vinegars are made from fruit wines usually without any additional flavouring. Common flavors of fruit vinegar include apple, black currant, raspberry, quince, and tomato. Typically, the flavors of the original fruits remain tasteable in the final vinegar.
to promote oxygenisation to give the fastest fermentation. In fast production processes, vinegar may be produced in a period ranging between 20 hours and three day


Chapter III: Methodology

Before fermentation:

The materials were prepared and the fruit that was used was selected. The guyabano fruit that was used was ripe. The fruit was then peeled and the seeds were got and was set aside. The fruit was weighed in a weighing scale 750 grams. The fruit was extracted and the juice that was produced was 50 mL. The juice was added 350 mL of water and 180 grams of sugar.It was then stirred until no solid particles was left. The mixture was then measured in a graduated cylinder, 305 mL. It was subjected to heat for about 30 minutes and after pasteurization the mixture was allowed to cool down at a room temperature.After it was cooled, the mixture was put in a bottle and 5 grams of yeast was added but was not stirred. The airlock was then put and the fermentationn process took place.It was fermented for about 6 weeksand observation was been done.

After fermentation:

The must was decantated slowly and then subjected to heat foir 30 minutes but 5 minutes before the time 5 grams of albumin was added.After pasteurization, the must was cooled at a room temerature and when it was cooled it put in the wine bottle for aging or oaking.After that the acetic acid was computed throug testing it and the vinegar quality was tested through its taste, smell or odor and color.

CHAPTER IV: Results and Discussions

Experimentation dates:
Started:Oct. 17,2007
Ended :Nov.21,2007

Date Observations Explanation
October 17 After several minutes the mixture with yeast, started to bubble up The yeast is starting to react with the mixture or it started to grow
October 18 The process continues The fermentation process of the mixture was still going on
October 24 The color and odor changes From the color, dirty white it changes to somelike color of the cane vinegar and the odor that smells like guyabano before turns to cane vinegar odor. The fermentation process allow this kind of reaction.
October 31 The mixture increases in mL. The reaction of yeast to the mixture makes the increase in mL.
November 7 The mixture still increases in mL. and it produces vinegar smell and the odor is like that of cane vinegar The reaction of yeast to the mixture makes the increase in mL. because the fermentation process was going on
November 14 Just like the observation at Nov. 7 but the increase of the mixture stops The process of fermentation in making or producing wine was done
November 21 The smell now is clear and it is a vinegar and the color does not change it is still like a cane vinegar Because of the extended fermentation process of the mixture instead of producing wine vinegar was produced. The longer the or the extention of the fermentation process makes the mixture into vinegar

The table shows the observation of the experimentation and the corresponding explanation of of the data gathered.

Chapter V: Conclusion and Recommendation

Conclusion:

The researcher therefore conclude that vinegar can be produced by Guyabano fruit.

Recommendation:

The researcher would like to recommend the product producedn of the Guyabano fruit.The researcher also recommend this study to be improve.


Chapter VI: Bibliography

1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vinegar
2) http://hbd.org/cdp/vinegar/vinegar.htm
3) http://www.proluxsa.com/english/thevinegar.html
4) http://www.proluxsa.com/english/thevinegar.html#TYPES%20OF%20VINEGARS
5) http://www.proluxsa.com/english/thevinegar.html#THE%20COLOR%20OF%20VINEGARS
6) http://www.proluxsa.com/english/thevinegar.html#WHAT%20IS%20THE%20VINEGAR´S%20SHELF-LIFE

steps…..continuation


Pour yeast in

Pour your yeast through the funnel into the mixture. This is referred to as “pitching” the yeast. Keep the funnel in the neck for the moment.

Pour the remaining Apple Juice/Cider in

Now, depending on what yeast you are using you may be able to get away with filling it right up to the neck. I would recommend you leave about 3-4 inches below where the neck begins at the bottom as there will be a foam build up.

Anyways, pour the remaining amount of juice in, washing the yeast out of the funnel and leaving enough space.

No further mixing is needed.

Attach Airlock

Depending on your variety of airlock, attach it.
1. Balloon- Attach to the neck and secure it with rubber bands.

2. Commercially Airlock -stick it into the rubber stopper and stick that into the neck of the container. Fill the big piece up to the line with vodka or any other type of alcohol and put the smaller piece on top. Put top on the whole assembly.

3. Attach PVC through rubber stopper. Attach hose to end of PVC.

If you are using tubing airlock, you will need to submerge the hose into a jar or glass once you’ve placed the container it the proper location.

Fermenting your wine

Place it somewhere relatively cool (65-75F) and out of the way. Animals and kids love to play with the airlock, so it’s best in the bottom of a closet, out of the way.

Check your airlock occasionally and make sure it is still firmly attached, especially the first few days. “DO NOT REMOVE IT.”

Check often to see if the sanitized liquid is gone from the commercial or tubing airlocks. Refill it if needed.

If the foam gunks up into any of them, do not panic. Remove them, clean them off, sanitize, and place them back on. That gunk has a layer of CO2 keeping the air out.

You may smell a something akin to a “Rhino Fart” Don’t worry. It will dissipate in time.

Leave it there for about 4-5 weeks. Once it becomes clear, it’s ready for tasting and drinking. Some wines are quicker, some require longer. The key is to wait until it clears up.

One exception is that if you used anything other than wine yeast, it may not clear up. You can generally expect it to be done at 4 weeks then.

You can use other equipment to judge if it is done, but that is another tool you’d need to buy.

Adjusting to Taste

Adjusting to taste
Once the wine has finished and begun to clear on it’s own, you can modify it to your taste. Sanitize your turkey baster by submerging it in a jar of sanitized liquid and sucking some into the baster. Discard the sucked up liquid and and pull a sample from the container. Don’t let the airlock get too far.

You’ll want to get about a glassful of wine before judging. Feel free to seal the container back up and come back to it if you want to judge later.

If it’s fine, proceed to the next step.

If it needs to be sweetened, follow the below.

1, Sanitize the mixing handle from earlier.

2, Get two cups of sample.

3. Boil about 4 pounds of sugar to 4 cups of water. Let it cool.

4. Pour into sample about a 1/2 oz at a time. Mix it throughly and taste. Do not drink. Once it is good, read on. Go ahead and pour that sample into a glass and enjoy! Don’t return it to the container.

For every 1/2 ounce you added to the sample, pour 4 fl. oz. of sugar solution per gallon into your container.
For instance, if the sample needed .75 fl. oz to taste good and I had 3 gallons, I would add 18 fl. oz. to it.

5. Add potassium sorbate into the container. Use 1/4 teaspoon per gallon of wine OR follow the directions on your package.

6(sorta optional). Add 1/4 tsp of Potassium Metabisulfite if you’ve made a 5-6 gallon batch. Look at the earlier step on how to scale the solution if you need to make it smaller or bigger.

This is optional if you went ahead with sulfites from the start. If not, then you will need to add it.

Again, omit if you are allergic to sulfites, though Sorbate works better in the presence of sulfite. This will also help long term stability.

You are looking for 70 or so ppm in the final beverage. You can use less if you are worried about sulfur tastes or don’t plan on keeping much wine on hand. It is needed though, if you plan on aging for an extended time.

7. Mix the container. Get a nice vortex and do so for a 4-5 minutes. You will knock yeast back up into the solution. Don’t worry. It will settle back down in time.

8. Replace the airlock.

9. Go ahead and leave it alone for about a few days or so. Once yeast and other stuff settle back down at the bottom of the container and it is has cleared again, go to the next step.

Don’t be afraid to wait up to a week or two. If it isn’t getting clearer after that time, don’t worry and just proceed to the next step. The wine is not ruined. It will just be a little cloudy.

Bottling

Bottling
Sanitize the siphon/siphon tubing(inside AND out), funnel and the caps and bottles you wish store the wine in. Additionally, you may wish to sanitize a coffee filter. I find that it’s better to just avoid getting the siphon tube near the yeast in the first place.

Remove the airlock and put the siphon into liquid. Make sure you do not let it sit on the yeast at the bottom of the container.

A bathroom or laying down a towel is recommended.

OPTIONAL-if you have a big enough container and plan on bottling right away, you can further reduce yeast bottling by siphoning all of the liquid out of the container and into another, allowing it to settle for a minute or two, then bottling. Of course, make sure you sanitize the second container.

Having another person also helps as they can make sure the tubing stays in the container at the proper level, avoiding yeast. An autosiphon can do that, as well as eliminate step 4.

1. To siphon, you will need to place the container on top of cabinet or ledge.
2. Put your bottles underneath it.
3. Making sure the tubing is still inside the container, let the other end fall below it.
4. Suck on the tubing. Do not blow on it in anyway.
5. Once liquid is over the top of the container in the tubing, put your thumb over the end.
6. Grab a bottle and release your thumb. The liquid should start flowing out of the tubing. Fill the bottle through the funnel. Do not submerge the line into the bottle, as your mouth has touched the end.

(Optional) If you want to remove yeast from the bottling, put the coffee filter in. It will not remove all of them, but will help to a degree. Keeping them in does not hurt though. I find that the coffee filter slows down the process too much also. YMMV.

7. Once it is filled, quickly grab another bottle and begin filling it. Cinch or otherwise cut off the flow of the tube. Continue until you are done.

8. Place caps on the bottles.

Finished!

At this point, chill and serve your wine. Leave a little bit of wine at the bottom of every bottle to avoid getting yeast. Enjoy it in moderation.

Otherwise, do not blame me for your hangovers and other unintended consequences, including but not limited to:
*Crazy hookups
*DUI/DWI/vehicular homicide or far worse
*Losing your money at poker
*Shunned by your friends for reenacting “Dirty Dancing”,”Made in Manhattan” , etc.
*Youtube video of you “Rick Rolling”
*Estrangement of loved ones

Read on if you want to learn more about what just happened.

The yeast in the container reproduced and turned the sugar + minerals+O2 in the liquid into more yeast cells + waste. This waste includes alcohol and CO2. The yeast have an alcohol “tolerance” and will not produce any further (meaning stop making CO2 and alcohol) at a certain percentage. They do not die, however.

If you added additional sugars to the wine without the potassium sorbate, the yeast will reawaken and produce CO2, carbonating the wine and adding a minor amount of alcohol before becoming dormant again.

Too much sugar followed by immediately bottling creates what is called a “Bottle Bomb” The yeast will produce CO2 that has no way of escaping. This naturally carbonates the beveage, but too much and the material the beverage is in becomes compromised, high pressure rupturing it. Yikes.

The Potassium/Sodium Metabisulfite helps keep other organisms from setting up shop in the wine, Yeast, which has some sulfite tolerance as well, will far outnumber the rouge organisms and will be able to grow in the solution. This allows you to ferment wine for many months without it spoiling or oxidizing.

You can find many resources and recipes on the web at great websites such as Jack Keller’s Wine Making for more info.

If you are interested in making more wine, you’ll probably want to get proper equipment to make the process smoother, so check for a local Homebrew store in your area. If there are none, you can check Austin Homebrew Supply Or Northern Brewer online.

Stay tuned for May when I’ll be debuting the next in my series, “How to Make Better Wine” which will show you how to make wine from raw fruits and better techniques and equipment that our budget couldn’t afford in this Instructable.

Steps…


How to Make Wine

Making wine is actually pretty idiot proof, with the right stuff, equipment, and sanitizing again and again.

In this Instructable, you’ll learn how to make fruit wines, including grape wines. This instructable will focus on the techniques, equipment and materials, rather than recipes.

You’ll need to procure some equipment and some chemicals but don’t worry. Most of it will last many batches with the proper cleaning and maintaining.

Ingredients

1, Juice of fruit to ferment
Just about ANY fruit is capable of being made into a wine. If it’s got juice, it’s fermentable pretty much. You can go ahead and buy juice from the store. However, make sure you read the ingredients on the label. Concentrate is fine too.

It MUST NOT CONTAIN additives other than Asorbic Acid(vitamin C). If it contains any Sorbate at all, it will not work.

You will need to get enough to match the total amount you want to make. IE- a 5 gallon batch of wine needs 5 gallons of juice.

Alternatively, you can use fresh fruit and get juice from that. The juice you will get is superior to your bottled variety. It is a separate process on it’s own, though, so for this Instructable, stick to juices that have already been squeezed for us.

Costco and Sam’s are your best bet. 5 gallons of juice goes for $23.

2. Sugar- Yeast need this to grow. The type of sugar and amount you use will determine your alcohol and flavors. I recommend Corn Sugar(Dextrose), which can bought at health or alternative grocery stores. Homebrew Stores will have plenty on hand.
You will need about 4 pounds which cost $5-6.

You can experiment with Brown sugar, white sugar(sucrose) or even honey. Keep in mind though that if you use honey, it will take much longer to ferment.

3. Yeast- The single most important thing to add. Again, a homebrew store is your best friend. I recommend Red Star Montrachet, but you are free to try many types of wine or champagne yeast. It is very cheap @ $.49 usually.

In a pinch or out of necessity, baker’s yeast can be used, but expect a worse flavors.

Under no circumstances try to use distiller’s or high-alcohol yielding yeast. You will regret this decision on the first sip.

One packet is generally good for up to 5 gallons. Some yeast can do more.

4. Chemicals
These are pretty much going to be found at chemical supply or home brew stores. You don’t need a large amount, but they are very cheap and can be used for lots of batches. They do not impart any undesirable flavor to the wine when used properly.

Sodium/Potassium Metabisulfite – Preserves the wine and allows yeast to grow unchallenged. When working with fresh fruit it is necessary or if you plan on using sorbates. You MAY NOT need this if your juice is pasteurized or bought from the store. However, if you got it on the side of the road, I recommend using it. DO NOT USE IF ALLERGIC TO SULFITES $2.39

NOTE: Potassium Metabisulfite is what the vast majority of wineries use. Using Sodium will add sodium to your wine, but it will work just as well.

Potassium Sorbate – Let’s you add sugar to the wine after fermenting without reactivating the yeast.DO NOT ADD IF ALLERGIC TO SORBATES $2.39

Yeast Nutrient- Wine tends to be a bit more sparse in building blocks for yeast to thrive in. Giving them some nutrients helps them work faster and help reduce the chance of off flavors. Optional, but recommended $3.19

Word on Chemicals

Don’t go running just because we are using chemicals. What do you think is in that apple you’re eating there? Tons of chemicals.

Unless you are allergic, I’d strongly urge you not to omit the recommended chemicals.This instructable is about making wine, so it would be a shame to leave out what wine maker’s have being doing for centuries. If you follow the directions on the label and this instructable, you’ll be fine.

Lastly, double check the labeling on the chemicals you get. Some will have varying amounts of ppm. They will usually have some instructions on amount. They may vary from the amounts used in this sample recipe.

Sanitation

If the yeast are the most important part in this instructable, then sanitation is the most important step. If not done, your “wine” will just turn out to be a giant jug of vinegar and be hardly palatable at all! You can tell if this occurred by the stench of vinegar.

You are making a batch of basically acidic sugar water that any mold or bacteria would love to set up shop in. Even though you cannot see them, those spoilers are lying all over your equipment, in every microscopic cranny and nook. Before making wine or any fermented beverage, you need to get rid of them.

Using your chosen sanitizer, make sure your container, stirrer, funnel, air lock parts, measuring spoons and work area are sanitized. You will need to have a contact time(being wet) of usually 30 seconds. Also make sure your hands are cleaned before beginning or at any step of dealing with the wine.

Why not sterilize?

Sterilize means to kill all life off a surface. Nothing survives. Sanitation means to reduce the amount of bacteria, wild yeasts, etc. to negligible levels. You will be hard pressed to sterilize unless you can fit all of your equipment into a boiling pot or can autoclave it.

Yeast do not need a sterilized surface. Just one that is sanitized so they set up shop and crowd out any invaders.

Getting Setup

In this instructable, we’ll make Edwort’s Apple wine aka Apfelwein. It’s easy and cheap to make. Plus, it tastes great.

For five gallons, you will need:

5 gallons of apple juice/cider
2 pounds Sugar(corn is recommended)
1 Yeast packet(from 1-10 gallons)
1 Table Spoon of yeast nutrient
100 mL/ 3.38 fluid oz. solution of 2.5% Potassium/Sodium Metabisulfite(if needed)

Recipes for other wines exists. I’m just using this recipe as an example for the process to follow.

Making the Sulfite Solution(if needed)

Take 1/2 teaspoon of your Sulfite and mix it into 125 mL/4.25 fluid ounces. Take 100mL 3 1/3 oz and discard the remaining amount.

If you want to make smaller or bigger batches, scale accordingly @ about 20mL a gallon.
For those chemistry nerds, your aiming for 50ppm in the container.

Pouring the Juice

Depending on how many bottles, you may need to combine steps 1&2:

1. Pour half of a bottle of apple juice/cider into the container then put one pound of sugar into bottle and shake it to dissolve the sugar into it. Pour another half of a bottle of apple juice/cider in.

2. Repeat again with your other pound of sugar.

3. Pour your Sulfite(if needed) and yeast nutrient into that bottle, mix it throughly and then pour into the container.

4. Pour in enough apple juice till you have about enough space for half a bottle of apple juice/cider

5. Save the bottles and wash them out. You’ll need them for storing the finished product. Make sure you do a good job of cleaning them as they will get gross very quickly.

Mix your juice

Mix the container thoroughly for about 1-2 minutes. You want a nice vortex to form. This is referred to as “degassing” the wine. It is getting any dissolved gases out of the liquid.

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